C Specifications of KAPPA applications

 C.1 Explanatory Notes

C.1 Explanatory Notes

The specification of parameters has the following format.

       name  =  type (access)

This format also includes a Usage entry. This shows how the application is invoked from the command line. It lists the positional parameters in order followed by any prompted keyword parameters using a “KEYWORD=?” syntax. Defaulted keyword parameters do not appear. Positional parameters that are normally defaulted are indicated by being enclosed in square brackets. Keyword (i.e. not positional) parameters are needed where the number of parameters are large, and usually occur because they depend on the value of another parameter. These are denoted by a curly brace; the parameters on each line are related, and each line is mutually exclusive. An example should clarify.

contour ndf [comp] mode ncont [key] [device] low =?high =? percentiles =? sigmas =?

NDF, COMP, MODE, NCONT, KEY, DEVICE, and SMOOTHING are all positional parameters. Only NDF, MODE, and NCONT would be prompted if not given on the command line. The remaining parameters depend on the value of MODE. If the mode is to nominate a list of contour heights, HEIGHTS will be needed (MODE = "Free"); alternatively, if the mode requires a start height and spacing between contours FIRSTCNT and STEPCNT should be specified (MODE = "Linear" or "Magnitude"). Note that there are other modes that do not require additional information, and hence no more parameters.

There is also an Examples section. This shows how to run the application from the command line. More often you’ll enter the command name and just some of the parameters, and be prompted for the rest. Note that the examples are the strings expected by the tasks. They are operating-system neutral as Kappa has run on several different operating systems. UNIX shells or operating-system command languages will often interpret as special characters some or all of []()\^~"’$*? that may form part of the Kappa command-line syntax. So in practice you should escape any such special characters that appear in these examples, as appropriate to your command language or shell. For instance, from the C-shell the fourth example of COMPAVE could be written like the following.

       compave cosmos galaxy ’[4,3]’ weight title=’"COSMOS compressed"’
       compave cosmos galaxy \[4,3\] weight title=\"COSMOS compressed\"

Backslash escapes individual special characters, whereas quotes placed around text escape all occurrences of special characters within the quotes.

Some parameters will only be used when another parameter has a certain value or mode. These are indicated by the name of the mode in parentheses at the end of the parameter description, but before any default, e.g. Parameter DEVICE in CENTROID is only relevant when Parameter MODE is "Cursor".

%name means the value of parameter name.

The description entry has a notation scheme to indicate normally defaulted parameters, i.e. those for which there will be no prompt. For such parameters a matching pair of square brackets ([]) terminates the description. The content between the brackets mean

Empty brackets means that the default is created dynamically by the application, and may depend on the values of other parameters. Therefore, the default cannot be given explicitly.
As above, but there are two default values that are created dynamically.
Occasionally, a description of the default is given in normal type, e.g. the size of the plotting region in a graphics application, where the exact default values depend on the device chosen.
If the brackets contain a value in the teletype typeface, this is the explicit default value.

List of KAPPA commands

ADD – Adds two NDF data structures
ALIGN2D – Aligns a pair of two-dimensional NDFs by minimising the residuals between them.
APERADD – Integrates pixel values within an aperture of an NDF
ARDGEN – Creates a text file describing selected regions of an image
ARDMASK – Uses an ARD file to set some pixels of an NDF to be bad
ARDPLOT – Plot regions described in an ARD file
AXCONV – Expands spaced axes in an NDF into the primitive form
AXLABEL – Sets a new label value for an axis within an NDF data structure
AXUNITS – Sets a new units value for an axis within an NDF data structure
BEAMFIT – Fits beam features in a two-dimensional NDF
BLOCK – Smooths an NDF using an n-dimensional rectangular box filter.
CADD – Adds a scalar to an NDF data structure
CALC – Evaluates a mathematical expression
CALPOL – Calculates polarisation parameters
CARPET – Creates a cube representing a carpet plot of an image
CDIV – Divides an NDF by a scalar
CENTROID – Finds the centroids of star-like features in an NDF
CHAIN – Concatenates a series of vectorized NDFs
CHANMAP – Creates a channel map from a cube NDF by compressing slices along a nominated axis
CHPIX – Replaces the values of selected pixels in an NDF
CLINPLOT – Draws a spatial grid of line plots for an axis of a cube NDF
CMULT – Multiplies an NDF by a scalar
COLCOMP – Produces a colour composite of up to three two-dimensional NDFs
COLLAPSE – Reduces the number of axes in an n-dimensional NDF by compressing it along a nominated axis
COMPADD – Reduces the size of an NDF by adding values in rectangular boxes
COMPAVE – Reduces the size of an NDF by averaging values in rectangular boxes
COMPICK – Reduces the size of an NDF by picking equally spaced pixels
COMPLEX – Converts between representations of complex data
CONFIGECHO – Displays one or more configuration parameters
CONTOUR – Contours a two-dimensional NDF
CONVOLVE – Convolves a pair of one- or two-dimensional NDFs together
COPYBAD – Copies bad pixels from one NDF file to another
CREFRAME – Generates a test two-dimensional NDF with a selection of several forms
CSUB – Subtracts a scalar from an NDF data structure
CUMULVEC – Sums the values cumulatively in a one-dimensional NDF
CURSOR – Reports the co-ordinates of positions selected using the cursor
DISPLAY – Displays a one- or two-dimensional NDF
DIV – Divides one NDF data structure by another
DRAWNORTH – Draws arrows parallel to the axes
DRAWSIG – Draws ±n standard-deviation lines on a line plot
ELPROF – Creates a radial or azimuthal profile of a two-dimensional image
ERASE – Erases an HDS object
ERRCLIP – Removes pixels with large errors from an NDF
EXCLUDEBAD – Excludes bad rows or columns from a two-dimensional NDF
EXP10 – Takes the base-10 exponential of an NDF data structure
EXPE – Takes the natural exponential of an NDF data structure
EXPON – Takes the exponential (specified base) of an NDF data structure
FFCLEAN – Removes defects from a substantially flat one-, or two-, or three-dimensional NDF
FILLBAD – Removes regions of bad values from an NDF
FITSDIN – Reads a FITS disc file composed of simple, group or table objects
FITSEDIT – Edits the FITS extension of an NDF
FITSEXIST – Inquires whether or not a keyword exists in a FITS extension
FITSEXP – Exports NDF-extension information into an NDF FITS extension
FITSHEAD – Lists the headers of FITS files
FITSIMP – Imports FITS information into an NDF extension
FITSIN – Reads a FITS tape composed of simple, group or table files
FITSLIST – Lists the FITS extension of an NDF
FITSMOD – Edits an NDF FITS extension via a text file or parameters
FITSTEXT – Creates an NDF FITS extension from a text file
FITSURFACE – Fits a polynomial surface to two-dimensional data array
FITSVAL – Reports the value of a keyword in the FITS extension.
FITSWRITE – Writes a new keyword to the FITS extension
FLIP – Reverses an NDF’s pixels along a specified dimension
FOURIER – Performs forward and inverse Fourier transforms of one- or two-dimensional NDFs
GAUSMOOTH – Smooths a one- or two-dimensional image using a Gaussian filter
GDCLEAR – Clears a graphics device and purges its database entries
GDNAMES – Shows which graphics devices are available
GDSET – Selects a current graphics device
GDSTATE – Shows the current status of a graphics device
GLITCH – Replaces bad pixels in a two-dimensional NDF with the local median
GLOBALS – Displays the values of the Kappa global parameters
HISCOM – Adds commentary to the history of an NDF
HISLIST – Lists NDF history records
HISSET – Sets the NDF history update mode
HISTAT – Computes ordered statistics for an NDF’s pixels using an histogram
HISTEQ – Performs an histogram equalisation on an NDF
HISTOGRAM – Computes an histogram of an NDF’s values
INTERLEAVE – Forms a higher-resolution NDF by interleaving a set of NDFs
KAPHELP – Gives help about Kappa
KAPVERSION – Checks the package version number
KSTEST – Compares data sets using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
LAPLACE – Performs a Laplacian convolution as an edge detector in a two-dimensional NDF
LINPLOT – Draws a line plot of the data values in a one-dimensional NDF
LISTMAKE – Creates a catalogue holding a positions list
LISTSHOW – Reports the positions stored in a positions list
LOG10 – Takes the base-10 logarithm of an NDF data structure
LOGAR – Takes the logarithm (specified base) of an NDF data structure
LOGE – Takes the natural logarithm of an NDF data structure
LOOK – List pixel values in a two-dimensional NDF
LUCY – Performs a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution of a one- or two-dimensional array
LUTABLE – Manipulates an graphics device colour table
LUTBGYRW – Loads the BGYRW lookup table
LUTCOL – Loads the standard colour lookup table
LUTCOLD – Loads the cold lookup table
LUTCONT – Loads a lookup table to give the display the appearance of a contour plot
LUTEDIT – Creates or edits an graphics device colour lookup table
LUTFC – Loads the standard false-colour lookup table
LUTGREY – Loads the standard grey-scale lookup table
LUTHEAT – Loads the heat lookup table
LUTIKON – Loads the default Ikon lookup table
LUTNEG – Loads the standard negative grey-scale lookup table
LUTRAMPS – Loads the coloured-ramps lookup table
LUTREAD – Loads an graphics device lookup table from an NDF
LUTSAVE – Saves the current colour table of an graphics device in an NDF
LUTSPEC – Loads a spectrum-like lookup table
LUTVIEW – Draws a colour-table key
LUTWARM – Loads the warm lookup table
LUTZEBRA – Loads a pseudo-contour lookup table
MAKESNR – Creates a signal-to-noise array from an NDF with defined variances
MAKESURFACE – Creates a two-dimensional NDF from the coefficients of a polynomial surface
MANIC – Change the dimensionality of all or part of an NDF
MATHS – Evaluates mathematical expressions applied to NDF data structures
MEDIAN – Smooths a two-dimensional data array using a weighted median filter
MEM2D – Performs a Maximum-Entropy deconvolution of a two-dimensional NDF
MFITTREND – Fits independent trends to data lines that are parallel to an axis
MLINPLOT – Draws a multi-line plot of the data values in a two-dimensional NDF
MOCGEN – Creates a Multi-Order Coverage map describing regions of an image
MSTATS – Calculate statistics over a group of data arrays or points
MULT – Multiplies two NDF data structures
NATIVE – Converts an HDS object to native machine data representation
NDFCOMPARE – Compares a pair of NDFs for equivalence
NDFCOMPRESS – Compresses an NDF so that it occupies less disk space
NDFCOPY – Copies an NDF (or NDF section) to a new location
NDFECHO – Displays a group of NDF names
NDFTRACE – Displays the attributes of an NDF data structure
NOGLOBALS – Resets the Kappa global parameters
NOMAGIC – Replaces all occurrences of magic value pixels in an NDF array with a new value
NORMALIZE – Normalises one NDF to a similar NDF by calculating a scale factor and zero-point difference
NUMB – Counts the number of elements of an NDF with values or absolute values above or below a threshold
ODDEVEN – Removes odd-even defects from a one-dimensional NDF
OUTLINE – Draws an outline of a two-dimensional NDF
OUTSET – Mask pixels inside or outside a specified circle in a two-dimensional NDF
PALDEF – Loads the default palette to a colour table
PALENTRY – Enters a colour into an graphics device’s palette
PALREAD – Fills the palette of a colour table from an NDF
PALSAVE – Saves the current palette of a colour table to an NDF
PARGET – Obtains the value or values of an application parameter
PASTE – Pastes a series of NDFs upon each other
PERMAXES – Permute an NDF’s pixel axes
PICBASE – Selects the BASE picture from the graphics database.
PICCUR – Uses a graphics cursor to change the current picture
PICDATA – Selects the last DATA picture from the graphics database.
PICDEF – Defines a new graphics-database FRAME picture or an array of FRAME pictures
PICEMPTY – Finds the first empty FRAME picture in the graphics database
PICENTIRE – Finds the first unobscured and unobscuring FRAME picture in the graphics database
PICFRAME – Selects the last FRAME picture from the graphics database.
PICGRID – Creates an array of FRAME pictures
PICIN – Finds the attributes of a picture interior to the current picture
PICLABEL – Labels the current graphics-database picture
PICLAST – Selects the last picture from the graphics database.
PICLIST – Lists the pictures in the graphics database for a device
PICSEL – Selects a graphics-database picture by its label
PICTRANS – Transforms a graphics position from one picture co-ordinate Frame to another
PICVIS – Finds the first unobscured FRAME picture in the graphics database
PICXY – Creates a new FRAME picture defined by co-ordinate bounds
PIXBIN – Places each pixel value in an input NDF into an output bin
PIXDUPE – Expands an NDF by pixel duplication
PLUCK – Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions
POW – Takes the specified power of each pixel of an NDF
PROFILE – Creates a one-dimensional profile through an n-dimensional NDF
PROVADD – Stores provenance information in an NDF
PROVMOD – Modifies provenance information for an NDF
PROVREM – Removes selected provenance information from an NDF
PROVSHOW – Displays provenance information for an NDF
PSF – Determines the parameters of a model star profile by fitting star images in a two-dimensional NDF
QUALTOBAD – Set selected NDF pixels bad on the basis of Quality
REGIONMASK – Applies a mask to a region of an NDF
REGRID – Applies a geometrical transformation to an NDF
REMQUAL – Removes specified quality definitions from an NDF
RESHAPE – Reshapes an NDF, treating its arrays as vectors
RIFT – Adds a scalar to a section of an NDF data structure to correct rift-valley defects
ROTATE – Rotates a two-dimensional NDF about its centre through any angle
SCATTER – Displays a scatter plot between data in two NDFs
SEGMENT – Copies polygonal segments from one NDF into another
SETAXIS – Sets values for an axis array component within an NDF data structure
SETBAD – Sets new bad-pixel flag values for an NDF
SETBB – Sets a new value for the quality bad-bits mask of an NDF
SETBOUND – Sets new bounds for an NDF
SETEXT – Manipulates the contents of a specified NDF extension
SETLABEL – Sets a new label for an NDF data structure
SETMAGIC – Replaces all occurrences of a given value in an NDF array with the bad value
SETNORM – Sets a new value for one or all of an NDF’s axis-normalisation flags
SETORIGIN – Sets a new pixel origin for an NDF
SETQUAL – Assigns a specified quality to selected pixels within an NDF
SETSKY – Stores new WCS information within an NDF
SETTITLE – Sets a new title for an NDF data structure
SETTYPE – Sets a new numeric type for the DATA and VARIANCE components of an NDF
SETUNITS – Sets a new units value for an NDF data structure
SETVAR – Sets new values for the VARIANCE component of an NDF data structure
SHADOW – Enhances edges in a two-dimensional NDF using a shadow effect
SHOWQUAL – Display the quality names defined in an NDF
SLIDE – Realigns an NDF using a translation
SQORST – Squashes or stretches an NDF
STATS – Computes simple statistics for an NDF’s pixels
SUB – Subtracts one NDF data structure from another
SUBSTITUTE – Replaces all occurrences of a given value in an NDF array with another value
SURFIT – Fits a polynomial or bi-cubic spline surface to two-dimensional data array
THRESH – Edits an NDF to replace values between or outside given limits with specified constant values
TRANDAT – Converts free-format text data into an NDF
TRIG – Performs a trigonometric transformation on a NDF
VECPLOT – Plots a two-dimensional vector map
WCSADD – Creates a Mapping and optionally adds a new co-ordinate Frame into the WCS component of an NDF
WCSALIGN – Aligns a group of NDFs using World Co-ordinate System information
WCSATTRIB – Manages attribute values associated with the WCS component of an NDF
WCSCOPY – Copies WCS information from one NDF to another
WCSFRAME – Changes the current co-ordinate Frame in the WCS component of an NDF
WCSMOSAIC – Tiles a group of NDFs using World Co-ordinate System information
WCSREMOVE – Remove co-ordinate Frames from the WCS component of an NDF
WCSSHOW – Examines the internal structure of a WCS description.
WCSSLIDE – Applies a translational correction to the WCS in an NDF
WCSTRAN – Transform a position from one NDF co-ordinate Frame to another
WIENER – Applies a Wiener filter to a one- or two-dimensional array
ZAPLIN – Replaces regions in a two-dimensional NDF by bad values or by linear interpolation