L Notes from Previous Few Releases
L.1 Release Notes–V1.13
L.1.1 General Changes
 A new graphical style attribute called TEXTMARGIN controls the width of
margins cleared around the edges of each drawn text string.
 Applications that report pixel scales (e.g. NDFTRACE, WCSFRAME) now report
more representative pixel scales. The pixel scales were previously measured
at the first pixel in the array. Now the pixel scales are found at a number
of places within the array, and the median of these values are reported.
 Colourmaps added from MRAO: Dave Green’s cubehelix (in two forms), John
Richer’s colour spiral, and the SPECX bl2yl.
L.1.2 Modified Commands
The following applications have been modified:

ARDMASK

 The VARIANCE and DATA arrays in the NDF can now be masked
simultaneously by setting the COMP parameter to
"All"
, which is now the
default value for COMP.

FITSMOD

 New parameter READONLY allows FITSMOD to be used to perform readonly
edits such as
"Print"
and "Exist"
on writeprotected NDFs, although
FITSVAL and FITSEXIST tasks are recommended for these operations.

FFCLEAN

 Now ignores a VARIANCE component full of bad values.

HISTOGRAM

 Now permits plotting of the histogram for datavalue limits that exceed
the singleprecision data range. Plotbounds parameters have therefore
changed type to _DOUBLE.
 The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes
are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
 New parameter WEIGHTS allows different weights to be associated with
each value in the input NDF.
 New Parameter WEIGHTSTEP defines the increment in weight value
corresponding to a single integer histogram count.

LINPLOT

 Monotonic AXIS values are now only required if the NDF current Frame is
AXIS, or MODE=
"Step"
, or horizontal error bars are being drawn.

LOOK

 New format
"wglist"
has been added, which lists the WCS coordinates
and pixel values in an image, omitting bad pixels.
 New mode
"All"
has been added, which lists the entire suppied NDF.

MFITTREND

 Permits processing of very large datasets by dividing into manageable
sections.

NDFTRACE

 Continues when it encounters an error within a WCS Frame.

NORMALIZE

 The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes
are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
 The new ZEROFF parameter can be set TRUE to force the fit to use an
offset of zero.

PASTE

 There is a new SHIFT parameter that applies constant shifts of origin
between successive pasted data.

PSF

 The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes
are only drawn if the picture is cleared.

REGRID

 The new parameter AXES allows regridding of selected pixel axes.
 It now uses AST_REBINSEQx rather than AST_REBINx. This introduces a
NORM parameter, which permits normalisation of the output array by the
number of contributing input array elements. Access to Parameter
CONSERVE now depends on NORM, and CONSERVE’s default has switched to
preserve the total value.

SCATTER

 The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes
are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
 The Pearson correlation coefficient of the data in the scatter plot is
now displayed, and written to the CORR output parameter.

SETAXIS

 For MODE=
"WCS"
it tries to find the best WCS axis to use when the WCS
axes are crossed or not parallel to the pixel axes.
"Linear_WCS"
is a new MODE option. It is a variant of "WCS"
where the
axis centres are set to the leastsquares linear fit to the values of
the selected axis. This is useful for exporting coordinates to
software with limited FITS WCS capabilities, such as no TAB support,
and when the nonlinearity is small.

SHOWQUAL

 Add new QNAMES output parameter to list the attribute name associated
with each QUALITY bit.

SQORST

 A new parameter called CONSERVE has been added, which may be set TRUE
to force total flux to be conserved in the output NDF.

TRANDAT

 When AUTO=
FALSE
, the new POFFSET parameter allows a shift to be
specified between the data coordinates in the input text file, and the
pixel coordinates in the output NDF.

WCSALIGN

 If an input NDF has more pixel axes than the reference NDF, an attempt
will now be made to align the input using the reference axes, whilst
retaining the other axes. Thus, if a threedimensional spectral cube is
aligned with a twodimensional image, the resulting output NDF would be
a threedimensional cube, aligned spatially with the image.
 This now performs an extra normalisation step at the end to remove the
effects of aliasing between the input and output pixel grids.
 The CONSERVE parameter is now used for both rebinning and resampling.
It defaults to the value of REBIN.

WCSMOSAIC

 Added new CONSERVE and NORM parameters to control flux conservation and
pixel normalisation.
L.2 Release Notes–V2.0
L.2.1 General Changes
 Now supports 64bit integer data.
L.2.2 New Commands
The following new applications have been added:

CONFIGECHO
 This is intended as a scripting tool. It displays the value of a
named entry in a group of configuration parameters.

NDFECHO
 This is intended as a scripting tool. It expands a given group
expression into a list of explicit NDF names, and displays a specified
subset of the expanded names.
L.2.3 Modified Commands
The following applications have been modified:

CHANMAP

 Four new estimators are available: FBAD, FGOOD, NBAD and NGOOD, which
produce the fraction/count of good/bad pixel values.

COLLAPSE

 Four new estimators are available: FBAD, FGOOD, NBAD and NGOOD, which
produce the fraction/count of good/bad pixel values.

MSTATS

 Four new estimators are available: FBAD, FGOOD, NBAD and NGOOD, which
produce the fraction/count of good/bad pixel values.

NORMALIZE

 A new boolean parameter called LOOP permits normalisation against a
single row or column when comparing twodimensional NDFs.

PARGET

 A new boolean parameter called VECTOR specifies the output format to
use for vectorvalued parameters.

ROTATE

 Now estimates north at the centre of the image rather than at the
bottom left corner, and uses a more accurate method.

WCSADD

 The transfer of set attribute values from basis Frame to new Frame can
now be controlled using a new boolean parameter called TRANSFER
(previously, set attributes were always transferred). The new default
is to transfer attributes only if the two Frames have the same class
and Domain.

WCSREMOVE

 The Frames to remove can now be specified by name as well as by index.
L.3 Release Notes–V2.1
L.3.1 New Commands
The following new applications have been added:

EXCLUDEBAD
 This will copy a twodimensional NDF, excluding any rows or
columns that contain too many bad values. Good rows or columns are shuffled
down to lower indices to fill the gaps left by the excluded rows or
columns, thus causing the output NDF to be smaller than the input NDF.
L.3.2 Modified Commands
The following applications have been modified:

ARDPLOT

 Can now display the outline of a Region even if no picture has been
displayed previously on the graphics device. The size of the plot is
controlled by the new SIZE parameter. Any existing picture can be
ignored by setting the new CLEAR parameter to TRUE.

BEAMFIT

 There is now more control of the initial or fixed sizes and shapes
of the beams. Note that this has involved a change of the type and function of
Parameter FIXFWHM. FIXFWHM like other FIX parameters is _LOGICAL; it
just constrains whether the FWHM values should be fixed. A new
parameter called FWHM allows you to set either initial values, or when
FIXFWHM is also set
TRUE
, it sets fixed FWHM values. The interpretation
of FWHM values depends on a new CIRCULAR parameter, which constrains
the fit to be circular thus there is no minor axis and orientation
derived. In combination it is possible to give a list of circular or
elliptical FWHMs.
 The output parameters now store the statistics of every fitted beam,
not just those of the primary beam.

CENTROID

 The centroid’s formatted coordinates, such as right ascension and
declination, are now normalised into the usual ranges. This aplies both
to the reported positions and the output parameters.

COPYBAD

 Now writes the number of good and bad pixels in the output NDF to
output parameters NGOOD and NBAD.
 No longer sets the BAD_PIXEL flag for the DATA and VARIANCE components.

DISPLAY

 The MODE parameter can now be set to
"Current"
to force the current
upper and lower limits to be reused.

ERASE

 Now has a parameter called REPORT that indicates if an error should be
reported if the specified object does not exist.

GDCLEAR

 Will now remove any unused space from the graphicsdatabase file, thus
keeping its size to a minimum.

HISTOGRAM

 The new WIDTH parameter offers the option to specify the bin width
instead of the number of bins.

MFITTREND

 Now has a parameter called PROPBAD, which controls whether to propagate
bad input values to the returned fit.

NDFECHO

 A new parameter called EXISTS has been added that allows the list of
displayed NDF paths to be filtered by removing the paths for NDFs that
do not exist.

NORMALIZE

 This will loop if the first NDF is onedimensional and the second is
twodimensional, provided LOOP=
TRUE
. It previously only worked if the
dimensionalities were in the reverse sense.

OUTSET

 The USEAXIS parameter now works, needed when the supplied NDF has more
than two axes.

PROVADD

 The inoperative parameter MORE has been removed.

SCATTER

 Now writes the number of pixels used to form the correlation
coefficient to output parameter NPIX.

SETQUAL

 It is now possible to copy all quality information from one NDF to
another using a new parameter called LIKE.

WCSALIGN

 The Gaussian kernel may now be applied in resampling mode as well as
rebinning mode.
L.4 Release Notes–V2.2
L.4.1 Documentation Changes
 SUN/95 has been upgraded to the new style of documentation. Some residual
collateral damage to the typesetting is likely to be present.
 Most of the old release notes have been removed from SUN/95, with just the
few mostrecent sets of notes retained in a separate appendix.
 The detailed descriptions of plotting and AST attributes are now in
appendices.
L.4.2 Modified Commands
The following applications have been modified:

COLLAPSE

 Fixed bug in the calculation of the variance for the Sum estimator.
Note that this applies to other collapsing commands such as MSTATS.

CONFIGECHO

 A new parameter called LOGFILE has been added that allows the list of
displayed configuration parameters to be written to a text file.

COPYBAD

 Restore setting the BAD_PIXEL flag for the DATA and VARIANCE
components, only setting it false if no bad pixels were copied and none
existed in the input NDF.

SEGMENT

 A bug that caused a crash for NDFs with degenerate axes has been fixed.

SETQUAL

 A new parameter QVALUE can be used to store a constant integer value in
the range 0 to 255 in the QUALITY component for all pixels.

WCSALIGN

 A new parameter ALIGNREF can be used to control the coordinate system
in which the input NDFs are aligned.

WCSMOSAIC

 A new parameter ALIGNREF can be used to control the coordinate system
in which the input NDFs are aligned.
L.5 Release Notes–V2.3
L.5.1 New Commands
The following new applications have been added:

NDFCOMPARE
 Compares two NDFs and reports whether they are equivalent, based
on a range of different tests.
L.5.2 Modified Commands
The following applications have been modified:

BEAMFIT

 Now works for HEALPix maps with its apparently nonsquare pixels.
 A longstanding issue of occasional nonsense WCS errors has been
rectified by using a betterconditioned algorithm.

FITSMOD

 A missing END header may be appended using the Write mode. Any
associated value and/or comment are ignored. The easiest way to append
an END header is with the wrapper FITSWRITE.

NORMALIZE

 Now calculates and displays Pearson’s coefficient of linear correlation
on the remaining data at every iteration.
 New Parameter CORR added to hold the last displayed correlation
coefficient.
 New Parameters OUTSLOPE, OUTOFFSET and OUTCORR added. These are
onedimensional NDFs in which the slopes, offsets and correlation
coefficients respectively are stored when operating in looping mode
(i.e. LOOP=
TRUE
).

ROTATE

 Now writes out the rotation angle actually used to an output parameter
(ANGLEUSED).

SQORST

 Propagates UNITS as it used to in the IMAGEformat version.
L.6 Release Notes–V2.4
L.6.1 New Commands
The following new application have been added:

ALIGN2D
 Aligns a pair of twodimensional NDFs by minimising the residuals
between them.
L.6.2 Modified Commands
The following applications have been modified:

APERADD

 Has a new parameter MASK, which can be used to save an NDF containing a
mask showing which pixels were included in the aperture.

COLLAPSE

 A warning that suggested that WLIM should b lowered even when it had
the minmum of zero no longer appears.

LINPLOT

 Parameter TEMPSTYLE is withdrawn. The
+
syntax should be used to set
temporary style changes.

LUCY

 A bug that prevented correct background removal when Parameter BACK was
null was excised.

MFITTREND

 Has a new FOREST parameter, which improves spectralline masking in
line forests using a smoothed mode rather than the mean and a better
estimate of the baseline noise.
 A bug has been fixed preventing fits in the rare combination of neither
variance nor bad values being present, and without masking of lines.
Bad variances are also now checked before spline fitting.

NDFCOPY

 A bug has been fixed that prevented excess WCS axes from being removed.

NORMALIZE

 Has two new parameters DRAWMARK and DRAWWIDTH that can be used to
exclude central markers and width indicator from the plot.

PROVSHOW

 Has a new option SHOW=TREE, which allows the family tree to be stepped
through in an interactive manner, with the user choosing which parent
is to be displayed next.

WCSADD

 Has a new option MAPTYPE=REFNDF, which causes a copy of a coordinate
Frame read from a reference NDF to be added into the modified NDF.
 New parameter RETAIN allows control over whether or not the new Frame
becomes the current Frame in the modified NDF on exit.
Classified KAPPA commands
Kappa applications may be classified in terms of their functions as follows.
DATA IMPORT & EXPORT

 Image generation and input

CREFRAME
 Generates a test twodimensional NDF from a selection of
several types.

FITSDIN
 Reads a FITS disc file composed of simple, group or table objects.

FITSHEAD
 Lists the headers of FITS files.

FITSIMP
 Imports FITS information into an NDF extension.

FITSIN
 Reads a FITS tape composed of simple, group or table files.

MATHS
 Evaluates mathematical expressions applied to NDF data structures.

TRANDAT
 Converts freeformat data into an NDF.

 Preparation for output

FITSEDIT
 Edits the FITS extension of an NDF.

FITSEXP
 Exports NDFextension information into an NDF FITS extension.

FITSMOD
 Edits an NDF FITS extension via a text file or parameters.

FITSTEXT
 Creates an NDF FITS extension from a text file.

FITSWRITE
 Writes a new keyword to the FITS extension.
DATA DISPLAY

 Detail enhancement

CARPET
 Creates a cube representing a carpet plot of an image.

COLCOMP
 Produces a colour composite image from 1, 2 or 3 individual
NDFs.

HISTEQ
 Performs an histogram equalisation on an NDF.

LAPLACE
 Performs a Laplacian convolution as an edge detector in a
twodimensional NDF.

SHADOW
 Enhances edges in a twodimensional NDF using a shadow effect.

THRESH
 Edits an NDF such that array values below and above two thresholds
take constant values.

 Device selection

GDNAMES
 Shows which graphics devices are available.

GDSET
 Selects a current graphics device.

 Display control

CURSOR
 Reports the coordinates of points selected using the cursor.

GDCLEAR
 Clears a graphics device and purges its database entries.

GDSTATE
 Shows the current status of a graphics device.

 Graphics Database

PICBASE
 Selects the BASE picture from the graphics database.

PICCUR
 Uses a cursor to select the current picture.

PICDATA
 Selects the last DATA picture from the graphics database.

PICDEF
 Defines a new graphicsdatabase FRAME picture or an array of FRAME
pictures.

PICEMPTY
 Finds the first empty FRAME picture in the graphics database.

PICENTIRE
 Finds the first unobscured and unobscuring FRAME picture in the
graphics database.

PICFRAME
 Selects the last FRAME picture from the graphics database.

PICGRID
 Creates an array of FRAME pictures.

PICIN
 Finds the attributes of a picture interior to the current picture.

PICLABEL
 Labels the current graphicsdatabase picture.

PICLAST
 Selects the last picture from the graphics database.

PICLIST
 Lists the pictures in the graphics database for a device.

PICSEL
 Selects a graphicsdatabase picture by its label.

PICTRANS
 Transforms coordinates between the current and BASE pictures.

PICVIS
 Finds the first unobscured FRAME picture in the graphics database.

PICXY
 Creates a new picture defined by coordinate bounds.

 Lookup/Colour tables

LUTABLE
 Manipulates an graphics device colour table.

LUTBGYRW
 Loads the BGYRW lookup table.

LUTCOL
 Loads the standard colour lookup table.

LUTCOLD
 Loads the cold lookup table.

LUTCONT
 Loads a lookup table to give the display the appearance of a
contour plot.

LUTEDIT
 Creates or edits an graphics device colour table.

LUTFC
 Loads the standard falsecolour lookup table.

LUTGREY
 Loads the standard greyscale lookup table.

LUTHEAT
 Loads the heat lookup table.

LUTIKON
 Loads the default Ikon lookup table.

LUTNEG
 Loads the standard negative greyscale lookup table.

LUTRAMPS
 Loads the colouredramps lookup table.

LUTREAD
 Loads an graphics device lookup table from an NDF.

LUTSAVE
 Saves the current colour table of an graphics device in an NDF.

LUTSPEC
 Loads a spectrumlike lookup table.

LUTVIEW
 Draws a colourtable key.

LUTWARM
 Loads the warm lookup table.

LUTZEBRA
 Loads a pseudocontour lookup table.

 Output

ARDPLOT
 Plots the boundaries of regions described in an ARD file over an
existing picture.

CLINPLOT
 Draws a spatial grid of line plots for an axis of a cube NDF.

CONTOUR
 Contours a twodimensional NDF.

DISPLAY
 Displays a one or twodimensional NDF.

DRAWNORTH
 Draws arrows parallel to the axes.

DRAWSIG
 Draws $\pm n$
standarddeviation lines on a line plot.

ELPROF
 Creates a radial or azimuthal profile of a twodimensional image.

LINPLOT
 Draws a line plot of the data values in a onedimensional NDF.

LISTSHOW
 Displays the positions stored in a positions list.

LOOK
 Outputs the values of specified NDF pixels to the screen or a text
file.

MLINPLOT
 Draws a multiline plot of the data values in a twodimensional
NDF.

OUTLINE
 Draws the outline of a twodimensional NDF.

SCATTER
 Displays a scatter plot between data in two NDFs.

VECPLOT
 Plots a twodimensionalimensional vector map.

 Palette

PALDEF
 Loads the default palette to a colour table.

PALENTRY
 Enters a colour into an graphics device’s palette.

PALREAD
 Fills the palette of a colour table from an NDF.

PALSAVE
 Saves the current palette of a colour table to an NDF.
DATA MANIPULATION

 Arithmetic

ADD
 Adds two NDF data structures.

CADD
 Adds a scalar to an NDF data structure.

CDIV
 Divides an NDF by a scalar.

CMULT
 Multiplies an NDF by a scalar.

CSUB
 Subtracts a scalar from an NDF data structure.

CUMULVEC
 Sums the values cumulatively in a onedimensional NDF.

DIV
 Divides one NDF data structure by another.

EXP10
 Takes the base10 exponential of each pixel of an NDF.

EXPE
 Takes the exponential of each pixel of an NDF (base $e$).

EXPON
 Takes the exponential (specified base) of each pixel of am NDF.

LOG10
 Takes the base10 logarithm of each pixel of an NDF.

LOGAR
 Takes the logarithm of each pixel of an NDF (specified base).

LOGE
 Takes the natural logarithm of each pixel of an NDF.

MAKESNR
 Creates a signaltonoise array from an NDF with Variance.

MATHS
 Evaluates mathematical expressions applied to NDF data structures.

MULT
 Multiplies two NDF data structures.

POW
 Takes the specified power of each pixel of a data array.

SUB
 Subtracts one NDF data structure from another.

TRIG
 Performs a trigonometric transformation on an NDF.

 Combination

CALPOL
 Calculates polarisation parameters.

COLCOMP
 Produces a colour composite image from 1, 2 or 3 individual
NDFs.

INTERLEAVE
 Forms a higherresolution NDF by interleaving a set of NDFs.

KSTEST
 Compares data sets using the KolmogorovSmirnov test.

NORMALIZE
 Normalises one NDF to a similar NDF by calculating a scale
factor and zero difference.

WCSMOSAIC
 Tiles a group of NDFs using World Coordinate System
information.

 Compression and expansion

CARPET
 Creates a cube representing a carpet plot of an image.

CHANMAP
 Creates a channel map from a cube NDF by compressing slices
along a nominated axis

COLLAPSE
 Reduces the number of axes in an NDF by collapsing it along a
nominated axis.

COMPADD
 Reduces the size of an NDF by adding values in rectangular
boxes.

COMPAVE
 Reduces the size of an NDF by averaging values in rectangular
boxes.

COMPICK
 Reduces the size of an NDF by picking equally spaced pixels.

INTERLEAVE
 Forms a higherresolution NDF by interleaving a set of NDFs.

NDFCOMPRESS
 Compresses an NDF so that it occupies less disk space.

PIXDUPE
 Expands an NDF by pixel duplication.

PLUCK
 Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions.

REGRID
 Uses an arbitrary mapping to regrid an NDF.

SQORST
 Squashes or stretches an NDF.

WCSALIGN
 Aligns a group of NDFs using WCS information.

 Configuration change

CHAIN
 Concatenates a series of vectorized NDFs.

FLIP
 Reverses an NDF’s pixels along a specified dimension.

MANIC
 Converts all or part of an NDF from one dimensionality to another.

NDFCOPY
 Copies an NDF (or NDF section) to a new location.

PERMAXES
 Permutes the axes of an NDF.

PLUCK
 Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions.

PROFILE
 Creates a onedimensional profile through an ndimensional NDF.

REGRID
 Applies a geometrical transformation to an NDF.

RESHAPE
 Reshapes an NDF, treating its arrays as vectors.

ROTATE
 Rotates a twodimensional NDF about its centre through any angle.

SETBOUND
 Sets new bounds for an NDF.

SLIDE
 Shifts pixels in an NDF by a given amount along each axis.

WCSSLIDE
 Applies a translational correction to the WCS in an NDF.

 Filtering

BLOCK
 Smooths an NDF using an ndimensional rectangular box filter.

CONVOLVE
 Convolves a pair of one or twodimensional NDFs together.

FFCLEAN
 Removes defects from a substantially flat one or twodimensional
NDF.

FOURIER
 Performs forward and inverse Fourier transforms of one or
twodimensional NDFs.

GAUSMOOTH
 Smooths a one or twodimensional image using a Gaussian
filter.

LUCY
 Performs a RichardsonLucy deconvolution of a one or twodimensional
array.

MEDIAN
 Smooths a twodimensional data array using a weighted median
filter.

MEM2D
 Performs a MaximumEntropy deconvolution of a twodimensional NDF.

ODDEVEN
 Removes oddeven defects from a onedimensional NDF.

WIENER
 Applies a Wiener filter to a one or twodimensional array.

 HDS components

ERASE
 Erases an HDS object.

NATIVE
 Converts an HDS object to native machine data representation.

 NDF array components

NDFCOMPRESS
 Compresses an NDF so that it occupies less disk space.

NDFCOPY
 Copies an NDF (or NDF section) to a new location.

PERMAXES
 Permutes the axes of an NDF.

QUALTOBAD
 Assigns bad values to pixels with given qualities.

REMQUAL
 Removes named qualities stored in an NDF QUALITY component.

SETBAD
 Sets new badpixel flag values for an NDF.

SETBB
 Sets a new value for the quality badbits mask of an NDF.

SETBOUND
 Sets new bounds for an NDF.

SETORIGIN
 Sets a new pixel origin for an NDF.

SETQUAL
 Assigns a specified quality to selected pixels within an NDF.

SETTYPE
 Sets a new numeric type for the DATA and VARIANCE components of an
NDF.

SETVAR
 Sets new values for the VARIANCE component of an NDF data
structure.

SHOWQUAL
 Displays the named qualities stored in an NDF QUALITY
component.

 NDF axis components

AXCONV
 Expands spaced axes in an NDF into the primitive form.

AXLABEL
 Sets a new label value for an axis within an NDF data structure.

AXUNITS
 Sets a new units value for an axis within an NDF data structure.

PERMAXES
 Permutes the axes of an NDF.

SETAXIS
 Sets values for an axis array component within an NDF data
structure.

SETNORM
 Sets a new value for one or all of an NDF’s axisnormalisation
flags.

 NDF character components

SETLABEL
 Sets a new label for an NDF data structure.

SETTITLE
 Sets a new title for an NDF data structure.

SETUNITS
 Sets a new units value for an NDF data structure.

 NDF extensions

FITSEDIT
 Edits the FITS extension of an NDF.

FITSEXIST
 Inquires whether or not a keyword exists in a FITS extension.

FITSEXP
 Exports NDFextension information into an NDF FITS extension.

FITSLIST
 Lists the FITS extension of an NDF.

FITSMOD
 Edits an NDF FITS extension via a text file or parameters.

FITSTEXT
 Creates an NDF FITS extension from a text file.

FITSVAL
 Reports the value of a keyword in the FITS extension.

FITSWRITE
 Writes a new keyword to the FITS extension.

SETEXT
 Manipulates the contents of a specified NDF extension.

SETSKY
 Stores WCS Information in an NDF.

 NDF History

HISCOM
 Adds commentary to the history of an NDF.

HISLIST
 Lists NDF history records.

HISSET
 Sets the NDF history update mode.

 NDF Provenance

PROVADD
 Stores provenance information in an NDF.

PROVMOD
 Modifies provenance information for an NDF.

PROVREM
 Removes selected provenance information from an NDF.

PROVSHOW
 Displays provenance information for an NDF.

 NDF World Coordinate Systems

PERMAXES
 Permutes the axes of an NDF.

WCSADD
 Creates a Mapping and optionally adds a new coordinate Frame
into the WCS component of an NDF.

WCSALIGN
 Aligns a group of NDFs using WCS information.

WCSATTRIB
 Manages attribute values associated with the WCS component of
an NDF.

WCSCOPY
 Copies WCS information from one NDF to another.

WCSFRAME
 Changes the current coordinate Frame in the WCS component of
an NDF.

WCSMOSAIC
 Tiles a group of NDFs using World Coordinate System
information.

WCSREMOVE
 Removes coordinate Frames from the WCS component of an NDF.

WCSSHOW
 Examines the internal structure of a WCS description.

WCSSLIDE
 Applies a translational correction to the WCS in an NDF.

WCSTRAN
 Transforms a position from one NDF WCS coordinate Frame to
another.

 Pixel editing and masking

ARDGEN
 Creates a text file describing selected regions of an image.

ARDMASK
 Uses an ARD file to set some pixels of an NDF to be bad.

ARDPLOT
 Plots the boundaries of regions described in an ARD file over an
existing picture.

CHPIX
 Replaces the values of selected pixels in an NDF.

COPYBAD
 Copies the badpixel mask from one NDF to another.

ERRCLIP
 Removes pixels with large errors from an NDF.

EXCLUDEBAD
 Copies a 2D NDF excluding any bad rows or columns.

FFCLEAN
 Removes defects from a substantially flat one or twodimensional
NDF.

FILLBAD
 Removes regions of bad values from an NDF.

GLITCH
 Replaces bad pixels in a twodimensional image with the local
median.

MFITTREND
 Fits independent trends to data lines that are parallel to an
axis.

NOMAGIC
 Replaces all occurrences of magic value pixels in an NDF array
with a new value.

OUTSET
 Sets pixels outside a specified circle in a twodimensional NDF to
a specified value.

PASTE
 Pastes a series of NDFs upon each other.

REGIONMASK
 Applies a mask to a region of an NDF.

RIFT
 Adds a scalar to a section of an NDF data structure to correct
riftvalley defects.

SEGMENT
 Copies polygonal segments from one NDF to another.

SETMAGIC
 Replaces all occurrences of a given value in an NDF array with
the bad value.

SUBSTITUTE
 Replaces all occurrences of a given value in an NDF array with
another value.

THRESH
 Edits an NDF such that array values below and above two thresholds
take

ZAPLIN
 Replaces regions in a twodimensional NDF by bad values or by
linear interpolation.

 Polarimetry

CALPOL
 Calculates polarisation parameters.

 Resampling and transformations

ALIGN2D
 Aligns a pair of twodimensional NDFs by minimising the residuals
between them.

PLUCK
 Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions.

REGRID
 Uses an arbitrary mapping to regrid an NDF.

WCSALIGN
 Aligns a group of NDFs using WCS information.

WCSMOSAIC
 Tiles a group of NDFs using World Coordinate System
information.

 Surface and vector fitting

FITSURFACE
 Fits a polynomial surface to twodimensional data array.

MAKESURFACE
 Creates a twodimensional NDF from the coefficients of a
polynomial surface.

MFITTREND
 Fits independent trends to data lines that are parallel to an
axis.

SURFIT
 Fits a polynomial or spline surface to a twodimensional data array
using blocking.
DATA ANALYSIS

 Statistics

APERADD
 Derives statistics of pixels within a specified aperture of an
NDF.

HISTAT
 Computes ordered statistics for an NDF’s pixels using an histogram.

HISTOGRAM
 Computes an histogram of an NDF’s values.

MSTATS
 Does cumulative statistics over a sequence of NDFs.

NUMB
 Counts the number of elements of an NDF with values or absolute
values above or below a threshold.

STATS
 Computes simple statistics for an NDF’s pixels.

 Other

BEAMFIT
 Fits beam features in a twodimensional NDF.

CENTROID
 Finds the centroids of starlike features in an NDF.

NORMALIZE
 Normalises one NDF to a similar NDF by calculating a scale
factor and zeropoint difference.

PSF
 Determines the parameters of a model star profile by fitting star
images in a twodimensional NDF.

SURFIT
 Fits a polynomial or spline surface to a twodimensional data
array.
SCRIPTING TOOLS



CALC
 Evaluates a mathematical expression.

CONFIGECHO
 Displays a named parameter from a group of configuration
parameters.

NDFECHO
 Expands a group expression into a list of explicit NDF names.

PARGET
 Obtains the value or values of an application parameter.
INQUIRIES & STATUS



GLOBALS
 Displays the values of the Kappa global parameters.

FITSEXIST
 Inquires whether or not a keyword exists in a FITS extension.

FITSLIST
 Lists the FITS extension of an NDF.

FITSVAL
 Reports the value of a keyword in the FITS extension.

NDFCOMPARE
 Compares a pair of NDFs for equivalence.

NDFTRACE
 Displays the attributes of an NDF data structure.

NOGLOBALS
 Resets the Kappa global parameters.
MISCELLANEOUS



KAPHELP
 Gives help about Kappa.

LISTMAKE
 Creates a catalogue holding a positions list.

KAPVERSION
 Checks the version number of the installed package.