### L Notes from Previous Few Releases

#### L.1 Release Notes–-V1.13

##### L.1.1 General Changes
• A new graphical style attribute called TEXTMARGIN controls the width of margins cleared around the edges of each drawn text string.
• Applications that report pixel scales (e.g. NDFTRACE, WCSFRAME) now report more representative pixel scales. The pixel scales were previously measured at the first pixel in the array. Now the pixel scales are found at a number of places within the array, and the median of these values are reported.
• Colourmaps added from MRAO: Dave Green’s cubehelix (in two forms), John Richer’s colour spiral, and the SPECX bl2yl.
##### L.1.2 Modified Commands

The following applications have been modified:

ARDMASK
• The VARIANCE and DATA arrays in the NDF can now be masked simultaneously by setting the COMP parameter to "All", which is now the default value for COMP.
FITSMOD
• New parameter READONLY allows FITSMOD to be used to perform read-only edits such as "Print" and "Exist" on write-protected NDFs, although FITSVAL and FITSEXIST tasks are recommended for these operations.
FFCLEAN
• Now ignores a VARIANCE component full of bad values.
HISTOGRAM
• Now permits plotting of the histogram for data-value limits that exceed the single-precision data range. Plot-bounds parameters have therefore changed type to _DOUBLE.
• The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
• New parameter WEIGHTS allows different weights to be associated with each value in the input NDF.
• New Parameter WEIGHTSTEP defines the increment in weight value corresponding to a single integer histogram count.
LINPLOT
• Monotonic AXIS values are now only required if the NDF current Frame is AXIS, or MODE="Step", or horizontal error bars are being drawn.
LOOK
• New format "wglist" has been added, which lists the WCS co-ordinates and pixel values in an image, omitting bad pixels.
• New mode "All" has been added, which lists the entire suppied NDF.
MFITTREND
• Permits processing of very large datasets by dividing into manageable sections.
NDFTRACE
• Continues when it encounters an error within a WCS Frame.
NORMALIZE
• The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
• The new ZEROFF parameter can be set TRUE to force the fit to use an offset of zero.
PASTE
• There is a new SHIFT parameter that applies constant shifts of origin between successive pasted data.
PSF
• The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
REGRID
• The new parameter AXES allows regridding of selected pixel axes.
• It now uses AST_REBINSEQx rather than AST_REBINx. This introduces a NORM parameter, which permits normalisation of the output array by the number of contributing input array elements. Access to Parameter CONSERVE now depends on NORM, and CONSERVE’s default has switched to preserve the total value.
SCATTER
• The default for the AXES parameter has changed so that by default axes are only drawn if the picture is cleared.
• The Pearson correlation coefficient of the data in the scatter plot is now displayed, and written to the CORR output parameter.
SETAXIS
• For MODE="WCS" it tries to find the best WCS axis to use when the WCS axes are crossed or not parallel to the pixel axes.
• "Linear_WCS" is a new MODE option. It is a variant of "WCS" where the axis centres are set to the least-squares linear fit to the values of the selected axis. This is useful for exporting co-ordinates to software with limited FITS WCS capabilities, such as no -TAB support, and when the non-linearity is small.
SHOWQUAL
• Add new QNAMES output parameter to list the attribute name associated with each QUALITY bit.
SQORST
• A new parameter called CONSERVE has been added, which may be set TRUE to force total flux to be conserved in the output NDF.
TRANDAT
• When AUTO=FALSE, the new POFFSET parameter allows a shift to be specified between the data co-ordinates in the input text file, and the pixel co-ordinates in the output NDF.
WCSALIGN
• If an input NDF has more pixel axes than the reference NDF, an attempt will now be made to align the input using the reference axes, whilst retaining the other axes. Thus, if a three-dimensional spectral cube is aligned with a two-dimensional image, the resulting output NDF would be a three-dimensional cube, aligned spatially with the image.
• This now performs an extra normalisation step at the end to remove the effects of aliasing between the input and output pixel grids.
• The CONSERVE parameter is now used for both rebinning and resampling. It defaults to the value of REBIN.
WCSMOSAIC
• Added new CONSERVE and NORM parameters to control flux conservation and pixel normalisation.

#### L.2 Release Notes–-V2.0

##### L.2.1 General Changes
• Now supports 64-bit integer data.
##### L.2.2 New Commands

The following new applications have been added:

CONFIGECHO
This is intended as a scripting tool. It displays the value of a named entry in a group of configuration parameters.
NDFECHO
This is intended as a scripting tool. It expands a given group expression into a list of explicit NDF names, and displays a specified subset of the expanded names.
##### L.2.3 Modified Commands

The following applications have been modified:

CHANMAP
• Four new estimators are available: FBAD, FGOOD, NBAD and NGOOD, which produce the fraction/count of good/bad pixel values.
COLLAPSE
• Four new estimators are available: FBAD, FGOOD, NBAD and NGOOD, which produce the fraction/count of good/bad pixel values.
MSTATS
• Four new estimators are available: FBAD, FGOOD, NBAD and NGOOD, which produce the fraction/count of good/bad pixel values.
NORMALIZE
• A new boolean parameter called LOOP permits normalisation against a single row or column when comparing two-dimensional NDFs.
PARGET
• A new boolean parameter called VECTOR specifies the output format to use for vector-valued parameters.
ROTATE
• Now estimates north at the centre of the image rather than at the bottom left corner, and uses a more accurate method.
WCSADD
• The transfer of set attribute values from basis Frame  to new Frame can now be controlled using a new boolean parameter called TRANSFER (previously, set attributes were always transferred). The new default is to transfer attributes only if the two Frames have the same class and Domain.
WCSREMOVE
• The Frames to remove can now be specified by name as well as by index.

#### L.3 Release Notes–-V2.1

##### L.3.1 New Commands

The following new applications have been added:

EXCLUDEBAD
This will copy a two-dimensional NDF, excluding any rows or columns that contain too many bad values. Good rows or columns are shuffled down to lower indices to fill the gaps left by the excluded rows or columns, thus causing the output NDF to be smaller than the input NDF.
##### L.3.2 Modified Commands

The following applications have been modified:

ARDPLOT
• Can now display the outline of a Region even if no picture has been displayed previously on the graphics device. The size of the plot is controlled by the new SIZE parameter. Any existing picture can be ignored by setting the new CLEAR parameter to TRUE.
BEAMFIT
• There is now more control of the initial or fixed sizes and shapes of the beams. Note that this has involved a change of the type and function of Parameter FIXFWHM. FIXFWHM like other FIX- parameters is _LOGICAL; it just constrains whether the FWHM values should be fixed. A new parameter called FWHM allows you to set either initial values, or when FIXFWHM is also set TRUE, it sets fixed FWHM values. The interpretation of FWHM values depends on a new CIRCULAR parameter, which constrains the fit to be circular thus there is no minor axis and orientation derived. In combination it is possible to give a list of circular or elliptical FWHMs.
• The output parameters now store the statistics of every fitted beam, not just those of the primary beam.
CENTROID
• The centroid’s formatted co-ordinates, such as right ascension and declination, are now normalised into the usual ranges. This aplies both to the reported positions and the output parameters.
COPYBAD
• Now writes the number of good and bad pixels in the output NDF to output parameters NGOOD and NBAD.
• No longer sets the BAD_PIXEL flag for the DATA and VARIANCE components.
DISPLAY
• The MODE parameter can now be set to "Current" to force the current upper and lower limits to be re-used.
ERASE
• Now has a parameter called REPORT that indicates if an error should be reported if the specified object does not exist.
GDCLEAR
• Will now remove any unused space from the graphics-database file, thus keeping its size to a minimum.
HISTOGRAM
• The new WIDTH parameter offers the option to specify the bin width instead of the number of bins.
MFITTREND
• Now has a parameter called PROPBAD, which controls whether to propagate bad input values to the returned fit.
NDFECHO
• A new parameter called EXISTS has been added that allows the list of displayed NDF paths to be filtered by removing the paths for NDFs that do not exist.
NORMALIZE
• This will loop if the first NDF is one-dimensional and the second is two-dimensional, provided LOOP=TRUE. It previously only worked if the dimensionalities were in the reverse sense.
OUTSET
• The USEAXIS parameter now works, needed when the supplied NDF has more than two axes.
PROVADD
• The inoperative parameter MORE has been removed.
SCATTER
• Now writes the number of pixels used to form the correlation coefficient to output parameter NPIX.
SETQUAL
• It is now possible to copy all quality information from one NDF to another using a new parameter called LIKE.
WCSALIGN
• The Gaussian kernel may now be applied in resampling mode as well as rebinning mode.

#### L.4 Release Notes–-V2.2

##### L.4.1 Documentation Changes
• SUN/95 has been upgraded to the new style of documentation. Some residual collateral damage to the typesetting is likely to be present.
• Most of the old release notes have been removed from SUN/95, with just the few most-recent sets of notes retained in a separate appendix.
• The detailed descriptions of plotting and AST attributes are now in appendices.
##### L.4.2 Modified Commands

The following applications have been modified:

COLLAPSE
• Fixed bug in the calculation of the variance for the Sum estimator. Note that this applies to other collapsing commands such as MSTATS.
CONFIGECHO
• A new parameter called LOGFILE has been added that allows the list of displayed configuration parameters to be written to a text file.
COPYBAD
• Restore setting the BAD_PIXEL flag for the DATA and VARIANCE components, only setting it false if no bad pixels were copied and none existed in the input NDF.
SEGMENT
• A bug that caused a crash for NDFs with degenerate axes has been fixed.
SETQUAL
• A new parameter QVALUE can be used to store a constant integer value in the range 0 to 255 in the QUALITY component for all pixels.
WCSALIGN
• A new parameter ALIGNREF can be used to control the co-ordinate system in which the input NDFs are aligned.
WCSMOSAIC
• A new parameter ALIGNREF can be used to control the co-ordinate system in which the input NDFs are aligned.

#### L.5 Release Notes–-V2.3

##### L.5.1 New Commands

The following new applications have been added:

NDFCOMPARE
Compares two NDFs and reports whether they are equivalent, based on a range of different tests.
##### L.5.2 Modified Commands

The following applications have been modified:

BEAMFIT
• Now works for HEALPix maps with its apparently non-square pixels.
• A long-standing issue of occasional nonsense WCS errors has been rectified by using a better-conditioned algorithm.
FITSMOD
• A missing END header may be appended using the Write mode. Any associated value and/or comment are ignored. The easiest way to append an END header is with the wrapper FITSWRITE.
NORMALIZE
• Now calculates and displays Pearson’s coefficient of linear correlation on the remaining data at every iteration.
• New Parameter CORR added to hold the last displayed correlation coefficient.
• New Parameters OUTSLOPE, OUTOFFSET and OUTCORR added. These are one-dimensional NDFs in which the slopes, offsets and correlation coefficients respectively are stored when operating in looping mode (i.e. LOOP=TRUE).
ROTATE
• Now writes out the rotation angle actually used to an output parameter (ANGLEUSED).
SQORST
• Propagates UNITS as it used to in the IMAGE-format version.

#### L.6 Release Notes–-V2.4

##### L.6.1 New Commands

The following new application have been added:

ALIGN2D
Aligns a pair of two-dimensional NDFs by minimising the residuals between them.
##### L.6.2 Modified Commands

The following applications have been modified:

APERADD
• Has a new parameter MASK, which can be used to save an NDF containing a mask showing which pixels were included in the aperture.
COLLAPSE
• A warning that suggested that WLIM should b lowered even when it had the minmum of zero no longer appears.
LINPLOT
• Parameter TEMPSTYLE is withdrawn. The + syntax should be used to set temporary style changes.
LUCY
• A bug that prevented correct background removal when Parameter BACK was null was excised.
MFITTREND
• Has a new FOREST parameter, which improves spectral-line masking in line forests using a smoothed mode rather than the mean and a better estimate of the baseline noise.
• A bug has been fixed preventing fits in the rare combination of neither variance nor bad values being present, and without masking of lines. Bad variances are also now checked before spline fitting.
NDFCOPY
• A bug has been fixed that prevented excess WCS axes from being removed.
NORMALIZE
• Has two new parameters DRAWMARK and DRAWWIDTH that can be used to exclude central markers and width indicator from the plot.
PROVSHOW
• Has a new option SHOW=TREE, which allows the family tree to be stepped through in an interactive manner, with the user choosing which parent is to be displayed next.
WCSADD
• Has a new option MAPTYPE=REFNDF, which causes a copy of a co-ordinate Frame read from a reference NDF to be added into the modified NDF.
• New parameter RETAIN allows control over whether or not the new Frame becomes the current Frame in the modified NDF on exit.

Classified KAPPA commands

Kappa applications may be classified in terms of their functions as follows.

DATA IMPORT & EXPORT
Image generation and input
CREFRAME
Generates a test two-dimensional NDF from a selection of several types.
FITSDIN
Reads a FITS disc file composed of simple, group or table objects.
FITSHEAD
Lists the headers of FITS files.
FITSIMP
Imports FITS information into an NDF extension.
FITSIN
Reads a FITS tape composed of simple, group or table files.
MATHS
Evaluates mathematical expressions applied to NDF data structures.
TRANDAT
Converts free-format data into an NDF.
Preparation for output
FITSEDIT
Edits the FITS extension of an NDF.
FITSEXP
Exports NDF-extension information into an NDF FITS extension.
FITSMOD
Edits an NDF FITS extension via a text file or parameters.
FITSTEXT
Creates an NDF FITS extension from a text file.
FITSWRITE
Writes a new keyword to the FITS extension.
DATA DISPLAY
Detail enhancement
CARPET
Creates a cube representing a carpet plot of an image.
COLCOMP
Produces a colour composite image from 1, 2 or 3 individual NDFs.
HISTEQ
Performs an histogram equalisation on an NDF.
LAPLACE
Performs a Laplacian convolution as an edge detector in a two-dimensional NDF.
SHADOW
Enhances edges in a two-dimensional NDF using a shadow effect.
THRESH
Edits an NDF such that array values below and above two thresholds take constant values.
Device selection
GDNAMES
Shows which graphics devices are available.
GDSET
Selects a current graphics device.
Display control
CURSOR
Reports the co-ordinates of points selected using the cursor.
GDCLEAR
Clears a graphics device and purges its database entries.
GDSTATE
Shows the current status of a graphics device.
Graphics Database
PICBASE
Selects the BASE picture from the graphics database.
PICCUR
Uses a cursor to select the current picture.
PICDATA
Selects the last DATA picture from the graphics database.
PICDEF
Defines a new graphics-database FRAME picture or an array of FRAME pictures.
PICEMPTY
Finds the first empty FRAME picture in the graphics database.
PICENTIRE
Finds the first unobscured and unobscuring FRAME picture in the graphics database.
PICFRAME
Selects the last FRAME picture from the graphics database.
PICGRID
Creates an array of FRAME pictures.
PICIN
Finds the attributes of a picture interior to the current picture.
PICLABEL
Labels the current graphics-database picture.
PICLAST
Selects the last picture from the graphics database.
PICLIST
Lists the pictures in the graphics database for a device.
PICSEL
Selects a graphics-database picture by its label.
PICTRANS
Transforms co-ordinates between the current and BASE pictures.
PICVIS
Finds the first unobscured FRAME picture in the graphics database.
PICXY
Creates a new picture defined by co-ordinate bounds.
Lookup/Colour tables
LUTABLE
Manipulates an graphics device colour table.
LUTBGYRW
Loads the BGYRW lookup table.
LUTCOL
Loads the standard colour lookup table.
LUTCOLD
Loads the cold lookup table.
LUTCONT
Loads a lookup table to give the display the appearance of a contour plot.
LUTEDIT
Creates or edits an graphics device colour table.
LUTFC
Loads the standard false-colour lookup table.
LUTGREY
Loads the standard grey-scale lookup table.
LUTHEAT
Loads the heat lookup table.
LUTIKON
Loads the default Ikon lookup table.
LUTNEG
Loads the standard negative grey-scale lookup table.
LUTRAMPS
Loads the coloured-ramps lookup table.
LUTREAD
Loads an graphics device lookup table from an NDF.
LUTSAVE
Saves the current colour table of an graphics device in an NDF.
LUTSPEC
Loads a spectrum-like lookup table.
LUTVIEW
Draws a colour-table key.
LUTWARM
Loads the warm lookup table.
LUTZEBRA
Loads a pseudo-contour lookup table.
Output
ARDPLOT
Plots the boundaries of regions described in an ARD file over an existing picture.
CLINPLOT
Draws a spatial grid of line plots for an axis of a cube NDF.
CONTOUR
Contours a two-dimensional NDF.
DISPLAY
Displays a one- or two-dimensional NDF.
DRAWNORTH
Draws arrows parallel to the axes.
DRAWSIG
Draws $±n$ standard-deviation lines on a line plot.
ELPROF
Creates a radial or azimuthal profile of a two-dimensional image.
LINPLOT
Draws a line plot of the data values in a one-dimensional NDF.
LISTSHOW
Displays the positions stored in a positions list.
LOOK
Outputs the values of specified NDF pixels to the screen or a text file.
MLINPLOT
Draws a multi-line plot of the data values in a two-dimensional NDF.
OUTLINE
Draws the outline of a two-dimensional NDF.
SCATTER
Displays a scatter plot between data in two NDFs.
VECPLOT
Plots a two-dimensionalimensional vector map.
Palette
PALDEF
Loads the default palette  to a colour table.
PALENTRY
Enters a colour into an graphics device’s palette.
PALREAD
Fills the palette of a colour table from an NDF.
PALSAVE
Saves the current palette of a colour table to an NDF.
DATA MANIPULATION
Arithmetic
ADD
Adds two NDF data structures.
CADD
Adds a scalar to an NDF data structure.
CDIV
Divides an NDF by a scalar.
CMULT
Multiplies an NDF by a scalar.
CSUB
Subtracts a scalar from an NDF data structure.
CUMULVEC
Sums the values cumulatively in a one-dimensional NDF.
DIV
Divides one NDF data structure by another.
EXP10
Takes the base-10 exponential of each pixel of an NDF.
EXPE
Takes the exponential of each pixel of an NDF (base $e$).
EXPON
Takes the exponential (specified base) of each pixel of am NDF.
LOG10
Takes the base-10 logarithm of each pixel of an NDF.
LOGAR
Takes the logarithm of each pixel of an NDF (specified base).
LOGE
Takes the natural logarithm of each pixel of an NDF.
MAKESNR
Creates a signal-to-noise array from an NDF with Variance.
MATHS
Evaluates mathematical expressions applied to NDF data structures.
MULT
Multiplies two NDF data structures.
POW
Takes the specified power of each pixel of a data array.
SUB
Subtracts one NDF data structure from another.
TRIG
Performs a trigonometric transformation on an NDF.
Combination
CALPOL
Calculates polarisation parameters.
COLCOMP
Produces a colour composite image from 1, 2 or 3 individual NDFs.
INTERLEAVE
Forms a higher-resolution NDF by interleaving a set of NDFs.
KSTEST
Compares data sets using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
NORMALIZE
Normalises one NDF to a similar NDF by calculating a scale factor and zero difference.
WCSMOSAIC
Tiles a group of NDFs using World Co-ordinate System information.
Compression and expansion
CARPET
Creates a cube representing a carpet plot of an image.
CHANMAP
Creates a channel map from a cube NDF by compressing slices along a nominated axis
COLLAPSE
Reduces the number of axes in an NDF by collapsing it along a nominated axis.
COMPADD
Reduces the size of an NDF by adding values in rectangular boxes.
COMPAVE
Reduces the size of an NDF by averaging values in rectangular boxes.
COMPICK
Reduces the size of an NDF by picking equally spaced pixels.
INTERLEAVE
Forms a higher-resolution NDF by interleaving a set of NDFs.
NDFCOMPRESS
Compresses an NDF so that it occupies less disk space.
PIXDUPE
Expands an NDF by pixel duplication.
PLUCK
Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions.
REGRID
Uses an arbitrary mapping to regrid an NDF.
SQORST
Squashes or stretches an NDF.
WCSALIGN
Aligns a group of NDFs using WCS  information.
Configuration change
CHAIN
Concatenates a series of vectorized NDFs.
FLIP
Reverses an NDF’s pixels along a specified dimension.
MANIC
Converts all or part of an NDF from one dimensionality to another.
NDFCOPY
Copies an NDF (or NDF section) to a new location.
PERMAXES
Permutes the axes of an NDF.
PLUCK
Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions.
PROFILE
Creates a one-dimensional profile through an n-dimensional NDF.
REGRID
Applies a geometrical transformation to an NDF.
RESHAPE
Reshapes an NDF, treating its arrays as vectors.
ROTATE
Rotates a two-dimensional NDF about its centre through any angle.
SETBOUND
Sets new bounds for an NDF.
SLIDE
Shifts pixels in an NDF by a given amount along each axis.
WCSSLIDE
Applies a translational correction to the WCS in an NDF.
Filtering
BLOCK
Smooths an NDF using an n-dimensional rectangular box filter.
CONVOLVE
Convolves a pair of one- or two-dimensional NDFs together.
FFCLEAN
Removes defects from a substantially flat one- or two-dimensional NDF.
FOURIER
Performs forward and inverse Fourier transforms of one- or two-dimensional NDFs.
GAUSMOOTH
Smooths a one- or two-dimensional image using a Gaussian filter.
LUCY
Performs a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution of a one- or two-dimensional array.
MEDIAN
Smooths a two-dimensional data array using a weighted median filter.
MEM2D
Performs a Maximum-Entropy deconvolution of a two-dimensional NDF.
ODDEVEN
Removes odd-even defects from a one-dimensional NDF.
WIENER
Applies a Wiener filter to a one- or two-dimensional array.
HDS components
ERASE
Erases an HDS object.
NATIVE
Converts an HDS object to native machine data representation.
NDF array components
NDFCOMPRESS
Compresses an NDF so that it occupies less disk space.
NDFCOPY
Copies an NDF (or NDF section) to a new location.
PERMAXES
Permutes the axes of an NDF.
QUALTOBAD
Assigns bad values to pixels with given qualities.
REMQUAL
Removes named qualities stored in an NDF QUALITY component.
SETBAD
Sets new bad-pixel flag values for an NDF.
SETBB
Sets a new value for the quality bad-bits mask  of an NDF.
SETBOUND
Sets new bounds for an NDF.
SETORIGIN
Sets a new pixel origin  for an NDF.
SETQUAL
Assigns a specified quality to selected pixels within an NDF.
SETTYPE
Sets a new numeric type for the DATA and VARIANCE components of an NDF.
SETVAR
Sets new values for the VARIANCE component of an NDF data structure.
SHOWQUAL
Displays the named qualities stored in an NDF QUALITY component.
NDF axis components
AXCONV
Expands spaced axes in an NDF into the primitive form.
AXLABEL
Sets a new label value for an axis within an NDF data structure.
AXUNITS
Sets a new units value for an axis within an NDF data structure.
PERMAXES
Permutes the axes of an NDF.
SETAXIS
Sets values for an axis array component within an NDF data structure.
SETNORM
Sets a new value for one or all of an NDF’s axis-normalisation flags.
NDF character components
SETLABEL
Sets a new label for an NDF data structure.
SETTITLE
Sets a new title for an NDF data structure.
SETUNITS
Sets a new units value for an NDF data structure.
NDF extensions
FITSEDIT
Edits the FITS extension of an NDF.
FITSEXIST
Inquires whether or not a keyword exists in a FITS extension.
FITSEXP
Exports NDF-extension information into an NDF FITS extension.
FITSLIST
Lists the FITS extension of an NDF.
FITSMOD
Edits an NDF FITS extension via a text file or parameters.
FITSTEXT
Creates an NDF FITS extension from a text file.
FITSVAL
Reports the value of a keyword in the FITS extension.
FITSWRITE
Writes a new keyword to the FITS extension.
SETEXT
Manipulates the contents of a specified NDF extension.
SETSKY
Stores WCS Information in an NDF.
NDF History
HISCOM
Adds commentary to the history of an NDF.
HISLIST
Lists NDF history records.
HISSET
Sets the NDF history update mode.
NDF Provenance
PROVADD
Stores provenance information in an NDF.
PROVMOD
Modifies provenance information for an NDF.
PROVREM
Removes selected provenance information from an NDF.
PROVSHOW
Displays provenance information for an NDF.
NDF World Co-ordinate Systems
PERMAXES
Permutes the axes of an NDF.
WCSADD
Creates a Mapping and optionally adds a new co-ordinate Frame  into the WCS component of an NDF.
WCSALIGN
Aligns a group of NDFs using WCS information.
WCSATTRIB
Manages attribute values associated with the WCS component of an NDF.
WCSCOPY
Copies WCS information from one NDF to another.
WCSFRAME
Changes the current co-ordinate Frame in the WCS component of an NDF.
WCSMOSAIC
Tiles a group of NDFs using World Co-ordinate System information.
WCSREMOVE
Removes co-ordinate Frames from the WCS component of an NDF.
WCSSHOW
Examines the internal structure of a WCS description.
WCSSLIDE
Applies a translational correction to the WCS in an NDF.
WCSTRAN
Transforms a position from one NDF WCS co-ordinate Frame to another.
Pixel editing and masking
ARDGEN
Creates a text file describing selected regions of an image.
ARDMASK
Uses an ARD file to set some pixels of an NDF to be bad.
ARDPLOT
Plots the boundaries of regions described in an ARD file over an existing picture.
CHPIX
Replaces the values of selected pixels in an NDF.
COPYBAD
Copies the bad-pixel mask from one NDF to another.
ERRCLIP
Removes pixels with large errors from an NDF.
EXCLUDEBAD
Copies a 2D NDF excluding any bad rows or columns.
FFCLEAN
Removes defects from a substantially flat one- or two-dimensional NDF.
FILLBAD
Removes regions of bad values from an NDF.
GLITCH
Replaces bad pixels in a two-dimensional image with the local median.
MFITTREND
Fits independent trends to data lines that are parallel to an axis.
NOMAGIC
Replaces all occurrences of magic value pixels in an NDF array with a new value.
OUTSET
Sets pixels outside a specified circle in a two-dimensional NDF to a specified value.
PASTE
Pastes a series of NDFs upon each other.
REGIONMASK
Applies a mask to a region of an NDF.
RIFT
Adds a scalar to a section of an NDF data structure to correct rift-valley defects.
SEGMENT
Copies polygonal segments from one NDF to another.
SETMAGIC
Replaces all occurrences of a given value in an NDF array with the bad value.
SUBSTITUTE
Replaces all occurrences of a given value in an NDF array with another value.
THRESH
Edits an NDF such that array values below and above two thresholds take
ZAPLIN
Replaces regions in a two-dimensional NDF by bad values or by linear interpolation.
Polarimetry
CALPOL
Calculates polarisation parameters.
Resampling and transformations
ALIGN2D
Aligns a pair of two-dimensional NDFs by minimising the residuals between them.
PLUCK
Plucks slices from an NDF at arbitrary positions.
REGRID
Uses an arbitrary mapping to regrid an NDF.
WCSALIGN
Aligns a group of NDFs using WCS information.
WCSMOSAIC
Tiles a group of NDFs using World Co-ordinate System information.
Surface and vector fitting
FITSURFACE
Fits a polynomial surface to two-dimensional data array.
MAKESURFACE
Creates a two-dimensional NDF from the coefficients of a polynomial surface.
MFITTREND
Fits independent trends to data lines that are parallel to an axis.
SURFIT
Fits a polynomial or spline surface to a two-dimensional data array using blocking.
DATA ANALYSIS
Statistics
APERADD
Derives statistics of pixels within a specified aperture of an NDF.
HISTAT
Computes ordered statistics for an NDF’s pixels using an histogram.
HISTOGRAM
Computes an histogram of an NDF’s values.
MSTATS
Does cumulative statistics over a sequence of NDFs.
NUMB
Counts the number of elements of an NDF with values or absolute values above or below a threshold.
STATS
Computes simple statistics for an NDF’s pixels.
Other
BEAMFIT
Fits beam features in a two-dimensional NDF.
CENTROID
Finds the centroids of star-like features in an NDF.
NORMALIZE
Normalises one NDF to a similar NDF by calculating a scale factor and zero-point difference.
PSF
Determines the parameters of a model star profile by fitting star images in a two-dimensional NDF.
SURFIT
Fits a polynomial or spline surface to a two-dimensional data array.
SCRIPTING TOOLS

CALC
Evaluates a mathematical expression.
CONFIGECHO
Displays a named parameter from a group of configuration parameters.
NDFECHO
Expands a group expression into a list of explicit NDF names.
PARGET
Obtains the value or values of an application parameter.
INQUIRIES & STATUS

GLOBALS
Displays the values of the Kappa global parameters.
FITSEXIST
Inquires whether or not a keyword exists in a FITS extension.
FITSLIST
Lists the FITS extension of an NDF.
FITSVAL
Reports the value of a keyword in the FITS extension.
NDFCOMPARE
Compares a pair of NDFs for equivalence.
NDFTRACE
Displays the attributes of an NDF data structure.
NOGLOBALS
Resets the Kappa global parameters.
MISCELLANEOUS

KAPHELP
Gives help about Kappa.
LISTMAKE
Creates a catalogue holding a positions list.
KAPVERSION
Checks the version number of the installed package.