NORMALIZE

Normalises one NDF to a similar NDF by calculating a scale factor and zero-point difference

Description:

This application compares the data values in one NDF  against the corresponding values in the other NDF. A least-squares straight-line is then fitted to the relationship between the two sets of data values in order to determine the relative scale factor and any zero-level offset between the NDFs (the offset may optionally be fixed at zero–-see Parameter ZEROFF). To reduce computation time, the data points are binned according to the data value in the second NDF. The mean data value within each bin is used to find the fit and weights are applied according to the number of pixels which contribute to each bin.

To guard against erroneous data values, which can corrupt the fit obtained, the application then performs a number of iterations. It calculates a noise estimate for each bin according to the rms deviation of data values in the bin from the straight-line fit obtained previously. It then re-bins the data, omitting values which lie more than a specified number of standard deviations from the expected value in each bin. The straight-line fit is then re-calculated. You can specify the number of standard deviations and the number of iterations used.

A plot is produced after the final iteration showing the bin centres, with error bars representing the spread of values in each bin. The best fitting straight line is overlayed on this plot.

Optionally, an output NDF can be created containing a normalised version of the data array from the first input NDF.

For the special case of two-dimensional images, if IN2 (or IN1) spans only a single row or column, it can be used to normalize each row or column of IN1 (or IN2) in turn. See Parameter LOOP.

Usage:

normalize in1 in2 out

Parameters:

AXES = _LOGICAL (Read)
TRUE if labelled and annotated axes are to be drawn around the plot. The width of the margins left for the annotation may be controlled using Parameter MARGIN. The appearance of the axes (colours, founts, etc.) can be controlled using the Parameter STYLE. The dynamic default is TRUE if CLEAR is TRUE, and FALSE otherwise. []
CLEAR = _LOGICAL (Read)
If TRUE the current picture is cleared before the plot is drawn. If CLEAR is FALSE not only is the existing plot retained, but also an attempt is made to align the new picture with the existing picture. Thus you can generate a composite plot within a single set of axes, say using different colours or modes to distinguish data from different datasets. [TRUE]
DATARANGE( 2 ) = _REAL (Read)
This parameter may be used to override the auto-scaling feature. If given, two real numbers should be supplied specifying the lower and upper data values in IN2, between which data will be used. If a null (!) value is supplied, the values used are the auto-scaled values, calculated according to the value of PCRANGE. Note, this parameter controls the range of data used in the fitting algorithm. The range of data displayed in the plot can be specified separately using Parameters XLEFT, XRIGHT, YBOT, and YTOP. [!]
DEVICE = DEVICE (Read)
The graphics workstation on which to produce the plot. If a null value (!) is supplied no plot will be made. [Current graphics device]
DRAWMARK = _LOGICAL (Read)
The central markers for each bin are not included in the plot if this parameter is set to FALSE. [TRUE]
DRAWWIDTH = _LOGICAL (Read)
The “error bars” marking the width of each bin are not included in the plot if this parameter is set to FALSE. [TRUE]
IN1 = NDF (Read)
The NDF to be normalised.
IN2 = NDF (Read)
The NDF to which IN1 will be normalised.
LOOP = _LOGICAL (Read)
If both IN1 and IN2 are two-dimensional, but one of them spans only a single row or column, then setting LOOP to TRUE will cause every row or column in to be normalised independently of each other. Specifically, if IN2 spans only a single row or column, then it will be used to normalise each row or column of IN1 in turn. Any output NDF (see parameter OUT) will have the shape and size of IN1. If IN1 spans only a single row or column, then it will be normalised in turn by each row or column of IN2. Any output NDF (see parameter OUT) will then have the shape and size of IN2. In either case, the details of the fit for each row or column will be displayed separately. Also see Parameters OUTSLOPE, OUTOFFSET and OUTCORR. [FALSE]
MARGIN( 4 ) = _REAL (Read)
The widths of the margins to leave for axis annotation, given as fractions of the corresponding dimension of the current picture. Four values may be given, in the order - bottom, right, top, left. If fewer than four values are given, extra values are used equal to the first supplied value. If these margins are too narrow any axis annotation may be clipped. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is 0.15 (for all edges) if annotated axes are produced, and zero otherwise. [current value]
MARKER = _INTEGER (Read)
Specifies the symbol with which each position should be marked in the plot. It should be given as an integer PGPLOT marker type. For instance, 0 gives a box, 1 gives a dot, 2 gives a cross, 3 gives an asterisk, 7 gives a triangle. The value must be larger than or equal to 31. [current value]
MINPIX = _INTEGER (Read)
The minimum number of good pixels required in a bin before it contributes to the fitted line. It must be in the range 1 to the number of pixels per bin. [2]
NBIN = _INTEGER (Read)
The number of bins to use when binning the scatter plot prior to fitting a straight line, in the range 2 to 10000. [50]
NITER = _INTEGER (Read)
The number of iterations performed to reject bad data values in the range 0 to 100. [2]
NSIGMA = _REAL (Read)
The number of standard deviations at which bad data are rejected. It must lie in the range 0.1 to 1.0E6. [3.0]
OUT = NDF (Write)
An optional output NDF to hold a version of IN1 which is normalised to IN2. A null (!) value indicates that an output NDF is not required. See also parameter LOOP.
OUTCORR = NDF (Write)
An optional 1-dimensonal output NDF to hold the correlation coefficient for each row or column when LOOP=YES. See Parameter CORR. Ignored if LOOP=NO. [!]
OUTOFFSET = NDF (Write)
An optional 1-dimensonal output NDF to hold the offset used for each row or column when LOOP=YES. See Parameter OFFSET. Ignored if LOOP=NO. [!]
OUTSLOPE = NDF (Write)
An optional 1-dimensonal output NDF to hold the slope used for each row or column when LOOP=YES. See Parameter SLOPE. Ignored if LOOP=NO. [!]
PCRANGE( 2 ) = _REAL (Read)
This parameter takes two real values in the range 0 to 100 and is used to modify the action of the auto-scaling algorithm which selects the data to use in the fitting algorithm. The two values correspond to the percentage points in the histogram of IN2 at which the lower and upper cuts on data value are placed. With the default value, the plots will omit those pixels that lie in the lower and upper two-percent intensity range of IN2. Note, this parameter controls the range of data used in the fitting algorithm. The range of data displayed in the plot can be specified separately using Parameters XLEFT, XRIGHT, YBOT, and YTOP. [2,98]
STYLE = GROUP (Read)
A group of attribute settings describing the plotting style to use when drawing the annotated axes, data values, error bars, and best-fitting line.

A comma-separated list of strings should be given in which each string is either an attribute setting, or the name of a text file preceded by an up-arrow character "^". Such text files should contain further comma-separated lists which will be read and interpreted in the same manner. Attribute settings are applied in the order in which they occur within the list, with later settings overriding any earlier settings given for the same attribute.

Each individual attribute setting should be of the form:

<name >= <value >

where <name > is the name of a plotting attribute, and <value > is the value to assign to the attribute. Default values will be used for any unspecified attributes. All attributes will be defaulted if a null value (!)–-the initial default–-is supplied. To apply changes of style to only the current invocation, begin these attributes with a plus sign. A mixture of persistent and temporary style changes is achieved by listing all the persistent attributes followed by a plus sign then the list of temporary attributes.

See Section E for a description of the available attributes. Any unrecognised attributes are ignored (no error is reported).

The appearance of the best-fitting straight line is controlled by the attributes

Colour(Curves), Width(Curves), etc. (the synonym Line may be used in place of Curves). The appearance of markers is controlled by Colour(Markers), Width(Markers), etc. (the synonym Symbols may be used in place of Markers). The appearance of the error bars is controlled using Colour(ErrBars), Width(ErrBars), etc. Note, Size(ErrBars)  controls the length of the serifs (i.e. the cross pieces at each end of the error bar), and defaults to 1.0. [current value]

TITLE = LITERAL (Read)
The title for the output NDF. A null value will cause the title of the NDF supplied for Parameter IN1 to be used instead. [!]
XLEFT = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the left hand end of the horizontal axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is the minimum data value used by the fitting algorithm from IN2 (with a small margin). The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for XRIGHT. [!]
XRIGHT = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the right hand end of the horizontal axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is the maximum data value used by the fitting algorithm from IN2 (with a small margin). The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for XLEFT. [!]
YBOT = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the bottom end of the vertical axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is the minimum data value used by the fitting algorithm from IN1 (with a small margin). The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for YTOP. []
YTOP = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the top end of the vertical axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is the maximum data value used by the fitting algorithm from IN1 (with a small margin). The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for YBOT. [!]
ZEROFF = _LOGICAL (Read)
If TRUE, the offset of the linear fit is constrained to be zero. [FALSE]

Results Parameters

CORR = _REAL (Write)
Pearson’s coefficient of linear correlation for the data included in the last fit.
OFFSET = _REAL (Write)
The offset in the linear normalisation expression: IN1 = SLOPE IN2 + OFFSET.
SLOPE = _REAL (Write)
The slope of the linear normalisation expression: IN1 = SLOPE IN2 + OFFSET.

Examples:

normalize cl123a cl123b cl123c
This normalises NDF cl123a to the NDF cl123b. A plot of the fit is made on the current graphics device, and the resulting normalisation scale and offset are written only to the normalize.sdf parameter file (as in the all the examples below except where noted). The NDF cl123c is the normalised version of the input cl123a.
normalize cl123a cl123b style="’size(errba)=0,title=Gain calibration’"
This normalises NDF cl123a to the NDF cl123b. A plot of the fit is made on the current graphics device with the title "Gain calibration". The error bars are drawn with no serifs.
normalize cl123a cl123b cl123c offset=(shift) slope=(scale)
This normalises NDF cl123a to the NDF cl123b. A plot of the fit is made on the current graphics device. The resulting normalisation scale and offset are written to the ICL variables SCALE and SHIFT respectively, where they could be passed to another application via an ICL procedure. The NDF cl123c is the normalised version of the input cl123a.
normalize in2=old in1=new out=! device=xwindows style=^normstyle
This normalises NDF new to the NDF old. A plot of the fit is made on the xwindows device, using the plotting style defined in text file normstyle. No output NDF is produced.
normalize in1=new in2=old out=young niter=5 pcrange=[3,98.5]
This normalises NDF new to the NDF old. It has five iterations to reject outliers from the linear regression, and forms the regression using pixels in old whose data values lie between the 3 and 98.5 percentiles, comparing with the corresponding pixels in new. A plot of the fit is made on the current graphics device. The NDF young is the normalised version of the input new.

Notes:

Related Applications

CCDPACK: MAKEMOS.

Implementation Status: