SURFIT

Fits a polynomial or bi-cubic spline surface to two-dimensional data array

Description:

The background of a two-dimensional data array in the supplied NDF  structure is estimated by condensing the array into equally sized rectangular bins, fitting a spline or polynomial surface to the bin values, and finally evaluating the surface for each pixel in the data array.

There is a selection of estimators by which representative values for each bin are determined. There are several options to make the fit more accurate. Values beyond upper and lower thresholds may be excluded from the binning. Bad pixels are also excluded, so prior masking may help to find the background more rapidly. κ-sigma clipping of the fitted bins is available so that the fit is not biased by anomalous bins, such as those entirely within an extended object. If a given bin contains more than a prescribed fraction of bad pixels, it is excluded from the fit.

The data array representing the background is evaluated at each pixel by one of two methods. It is written to the output NDF structure.

The raw binned data, the weights, the fitted binned data and the residuals to the fit may be written to a logfile. This also keeps a record of the input parameters and the rms error of the fit.

Usage:

surfit in out [fittype] [estimator] [bindim] [evaluate]

Parameters:

BINDIM() = _INTEGER (Read)
The x-y dimensions of a bin used to estimate the local background. If you supply only one value, it is used for both dimensions. The minimum value is 2. The maximum may be constrained by the number of polynomial terms, such that in each direction there are at least as many bins as terms. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is such that 32 bins are created along each axis. [!]
CLIP() = _REAL (Read)
Array of limits for progressive clipping of pixel values during the binning process in units of standard deviation. A null value means only unclipped statistics are computed and presented. Between one and five values may be supplied. [2,3]
ESTIMATOR = LITERAL (Read)
The estimator for the bin. It must be one of the following values: "Mean" for the mean value, "Ksigma" for the mean with κ-sigma clipping; "Mode" for the mode, and "Median" for the median. "Mode" is only available when there are at least twelve pixels in a bin. If a null (!) value is supplied, "Median" is used if there are fewer than 6 values in a bin, and "Mode" is used otherwise. [!]
EVALUATE = LITERAL (Read)
The method by which the resulting data array is to be evaluated from the surface-fit. It must be either "Interpolate" where the values at the corners of the bins are derived first, and then the pixel values are found by linear interpolation within those bins; or "All" where the surface-fit is evaluated for every pixel. The latter is slower, but can produce more-accurate results, unless the surface is well behaved. The default is the current value, which is initially set to "Interpolate". []
FITCLIP() = _REAL (Read)
Array of limits for progressive clipping of the binned array in units of the rms deviation of the fit. A null value (!) means no clipping of the binned array will take place. Between 1 and 5 values may be supplied. The default is the current value, which is ! initially. []
FITTYPE = LITERAL (Read)
The type of fit. It must be either "Polynomial" for a Chebyshev polynomial or "Spline" for a bi-cubic spline. The default is the current value, which initially is "Spline". []
GENVAR = _LOGICAL (Read)
If TRUE, a constant variance array is created in the output NDF assigned to the mean square surface-fit error. [FALSE]
LOGFILE = FILENAME (Read)
Name of the file to log the binned array and errors before and after fitting. If null, there will be no logging. [!]
IN = NDF (Read)
NDF containing the two-dimensional data array to be fitted.
KNOTS( 2 ) = _INTEGER (Read)
The number of interior knots used for the bi-cubic-spline fit along the x and y axes. These knots are equally spaced within the image. Both values must be in the range 0 to 11. If you supply a single value, it applies to both axes. Thus 1 creates one interior knot, [5,4] gives 5 along the x axis and 4 along the y direction. Increasing this parameter values increases the flexibility of the surface. Normally, 4 is a reasonable value. The upper limit of acceptable values will be reduced along each axis when its binned array dimension is fewer than 29. KNOTS is only accessed when FITTYPE="Spline". The default is the current value, which is 4 initially. []
ORDER( 2 ) = _INTEGER (Read)
The orders of the fits along the x and y directions. Both values must be in the range 0 to 14. If you supply a single single value, it applies to both axes. Thus 0 gives a constant, [3,1] gives a cubic along the x direction and a linear fit along the y axis. Increasing this parameter values increases the flexibility of the surface. The upper limit of acceptable values will be reduced along each axis when its binned array dimension is fewer than 29. ORDER is only accessed when FITTYPE="Polynomial". The default is the current value, which is 4 initially. []
OUT = NDF (Write)
NDF to contain the fitted two-dimensional data array.
THRHI = _REAL (Read)
Upper threshold above which values will be excluded from the analysis to derive representative values for the bins. If it is null (!) there will be no upper threshold. [!]
THRLO = _REAL (Read)
Lower threshold below which values will be excluded from the analysis to derive representative values for the bins. If it is null (!) there will be no lower threshold. [!]
TITLE = LITERAL (Read)
The title for the output NDF. A null value will cause the title of the NDF supplied for Parameter IN to be used instead. [!]
WLIM = _REAL (Read)
The minimum fraction of good pixels in a bin that permits the bin to be included in the fit. Here good pixels are ones that participated in the calculation of the bin’s representative value. So they exclude both bad pixels  and ones rejected during estimation (e.g. ones beyond the thresholds or were clipped). [!]

Results Parameters

RMS = _REAL (Write)
The RMS deviation of the fit from the original data (per pixel).

Notes:

A polynomial surface fit is stored in a SURFACEFIT extension, component FIT of type POLYNOMIAL, variant CHEBYSHEV or BSPLINE.

For further details of the CHEBYSHEV variant see SGP/38. The CHEBYSHEV variant includes the fitting variance for each coefficient.

The BSPLINE variant structure is provisional. It contain the spline coefficients in the two-dimensional DATA_ARRAY component, the knots in XKNOTS and YKNOTS arrays, and a scaling factor to restore the original values in SCALE. All of these components have type _REAL.

Also stored in the SURFACEFIT extension is the r.m.s. deviation to the fit (component RMS); and the co-ordinate system component COSYS, set to "GRID".

Examples:

surfit comaB comaB_bg
This calculates the surface fit to the two-dimensional NDF called comaB using the current defaults. The evaluated fit is stored in the NDF called comaB_bg.
surfit comaB comaB_bg poly median order=5 bindim=[24,30]
As above except that 5th-order polynomial fit is chosen, the median is used to derive the representative value for each bin, and the binning size is 24 pixels along the first axis, and 32 pixels along the second.
surfit comaB comaB_bg fitclip=[2,3] logfile=comaB_fit.lis
As the first example except that the binned array is clipped at 2 then 3 standard deviations to remove outliers before the final fit is computed. The text file comaB_fit.lis records a log of the surface fit.
surfit comaB comaB_bg estimator=ksigma clip=[2,2,3]
As the first example except that the representative value of each bin is the mean after clipping twice at 2 then once at 3 standard deviations.
surfit in=irasorion out=sback evaluate=all fittype=s knots=7
This calculates the surface fit to the two-dimensional NDF called irasorion. The fit is evaluated at every pixel and the resulting array stored in the NDF called sback. A spline with seven knots along each axis is used to fit the surface.

Related Applications

KAPPA: ARDMASK, FITSURFACE, MAKESURFACE, REGIONMASK.

Implementation Status: