HISTOGRAM

Computes an histogram of an NDF’s values

Description:

This application derives histogram information for an NDF  array between specified limits, using either a set number of bins (Parameter NUMBIN) or a chosen bin width (Parameter WIDTH). The histogram is reported, and may optionally be written to a text log file, and/or plotted graphically.

By default, each data value contributes a value of one to the corresponding histogram bin, but alternative weights may be supplied via Parameter WEIGHTS.

Usage:

histogram in numbin range [comp] [logfile]

Parameters:

AXES = _LOGICAL (Read)
TRUE if labelled and annotated axes are to be drawn around the plot. The width of the margins left for the annotation may be controlled using Parameter MARGIN. The appearance of the axes (colours, founts, etc.) can be controlled using the Parameter STYLE. The dynamic default is TRUE if CLEAR is TRUE, and FALSE otherwise. []
CLEAR = _LOGICAL (Read)
If TRUE the current picture is cleared before the plot is drawn. If CLEAR is FALSE not only is the existing plot retained, but also an attempt is made to align the new picture with the existing picture. Thus you can generate a composite plot within a single set of axes, say using different colours or modes to distinguish data from different datasets. [TRUE]
COMP = LITERAL (Read)
The name of the NDF array component to have its histogram computed: "Data", "Error", "Quality" or "Variance" (where "Error" is the alternative to "Variance" and causes the square root of the variance values to be taken before computing the statistics). If "Quality" is specified, then the quality values are treated as numerical values (in the range 0 to 255). ["Data"]
CUMUL = _LOGICAL (Read)
If TRUE then a cumulative histogram is reported. [FALSE]
DEVICE = DEVICE (Read)
The graphics workstation on which to produce the plot. If it is null (!), no plot will be made. [Current graphics device]
IN = NDF (Read)
The NDF data structure to be analysed.
LOGFILE = FILENAME (Write)
A text file into which the results should be logged. If a null value is supplied (the default), then no logging of results will take place. [!]
MARGIN( 4 ) = _REAL (Read)
The widths of the margins to leave for axis annotation, given as fractions of the corresponding dimension of the current picture. Four values may be given, in the order bottom, right, top, left. If fewer than four values are given, extra values are used equal to the first supplied value. If these margins are too narrow any axis annotation may be clipped. If a null (!) value is supplied, the value used is 0.15 (for all edges) if either annotated axes or a key are produced, and zero otherwise. [current value]
NUMBIN = _INTEGER (Read)
The number of histogram bins to be used. This must lie in the range 2 to 10000. The suggested default is the current value. It is ignored if WIDTH is not null.
OUT = NDF (Read)
Name of the NDF structure to save the histogram in its data array. If null (!) is entered the histogram NDF is not created. [!]
RANGE = LITERAL (Read)
RANGE specifies the range of values for which the histogram is to be computed. The supplied string should consist of up to three sub-strings, separated by commas. For all but the option where you give explicit numerical limits, the first sub-string must specify the method to use. If supplied, the other two sub-strings should be numerical values as described below (default values will be used if these sub-strings are not provided). The following options are available.
  • lower,upper –- You can supply explicit lower and upper limiting values. For example, "10,200" would set the histogram lower limit to 10 and its upper limit to 200. No method name prefixes the two values. If only one value is supplied, the "Range" method is adopted. The limits must be within the dynamic range for the data type of the NDF array component.

  • "Percentiles" –- The default values for the histogram data range are set to the specified percentiles of the data. For instance, if the value "Per,10,99" is supplied, then the lowest 10% and highest 1% of the data values are excluded from the histogram. If only one value, p1, is supplied, the second value, p2, defaults to (100 - p1). If no values are supplied, the values default to "5,95". Values must be in the range 0 to 100.

  • "Range" –- The minimum and maximum array values are used. No other sub-strings are needed by this option. Null (!) is a synonym for the "Range" method.

  • "Sigmas" –- The histogram limiting values are set to the specified numbers of standard deviations below and above the mean of the data. For instance, if the supplied value is "sig,1.5,3.0", then the histogram extends from the mean of the data minus 1.5 standard deviations to the mean plus 3 standard deviations. If only one value is supplied, the second value defaults to the supplied value. If no values are supplied, both default to "3.0".

The "Percentiles" and "Sigmas" methods are useful to generate a first pass at the histogram. They reduce the likelihood that all but a small number of values lie within a few histogram bins.

The extreme values are reported unless Parameter RANGE is specified on the command line. In this case extreme values are only calculated where necessary for the chosen method.

The method name can be abbreviated to a single character, and is case insensitive. The initial value is "Range". The suggested defaults are the current values, or ! if these do not exist. [current value]

STYLE = GROUP (Read)
A group of attribute settings describing the plotting style to use when drawing the annotated axes and data values.

A comma-separated list of strings should be given in which each string is either an attribute setting, or the name of a text file preceded by an up-arrow character "^". Such text files should contain further comma-separated lists which will be read and interpreted in the same manner. Attribute settings are applied in the order in which they occur within the list, with later settings overriding any earlier settings given for the same attribute.

Each individual attribute setting should be of the form:

<name >= <value >

where <name > is the name of a plotting attribute, and <value > is the value to assign to the attribute. Default values will be used for any unspecified attributes. All attributes will be defaulted if a null value (!)–-the initial default–-is supplied. To apply changes of style to only the current invocation, begin these attributes with a plus sign. A mixture of persistent and temporary style changes is achieved by listing all the persistent attributes followed by a plus sign then the list of temporary attributes.

See Section E for a description of the available attributes. Any unrecognised attributes are ignored (no error is reported).

The appearance of the histogram curve is controlled by the attributes Colour(Curves), Width(Curves), etc. (The synonym Line may be used in place of Curves.) [current value]

TITLE = LITERAL (Read)
Title for the histogram NDF. ["KAPPA - Histogram"]
WEIGHTS = NDF (Read)
An optional NDF holding weights associated with each input pixel value (supplied via parameter IN). Together with parameter WEIGHTSTEP, these determine the count added to the corresponding histogram bin for each input pixel value. For instance, weights could be related to the variance of the data values, or to the position of the data values within the input NDF. If a null value (!) is supplied for WEIGHTS, all input values contribute a count of one to the corresponding histogram bin. If an NDF is supplied, the histogram count for a particular input pixel is formed by dividing its weight value (supplied in the WEIGHTS NDF) by the value of Parameter WEIGHTSTEP, and then taking the nearest integer. Input pixels with bad or zero weights are excluded from the histogram. [!]
WEIGHTSTEP = _DOUBLE (Read)
Only accessed if a value is supplied for parameter WEIGHTS. WEIGHTSTEP is the increment in weight value that corresponds to a unit increment in histogram count.
WIDTH = _DOUBLE (Read)
The bin width. This is the alternative to setting the number of bins. The bins of the chosen width start from the minimum value and do not exceed the maximum value. Values are constrained to give between 2 and 10000 bins. If this parameter is set to null (!), the data range and Parameter NUMBIN are used to specify the bin width. [!]
XLEFT = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the left hand end of the horizontal axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the minimum data value in the histogram is used. The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for XRIGHT. [!]
XLOG = _LOGICAL (Read)
TRUE if the plot x axis is to be logarithmic. Any histogram bins which have negative or zero central data values are omitted from the plot. [FALSE]
XRIGHT = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the right hand end of the horizontal axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the maximum data value in the histogram is used. The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for XLEFT. [!]
YBOT = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the bottom end of the vertical axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the lowest count the histogram is used. The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for YTOP. [!]
YLOG = _LOGICAL (Read)
TRUE if the plot y axis is to be logarithmic. Empty bins are removed from the plot if the y axis is logarithmic. [FALSE]
YTOP = _DOUBLE (Read)
The axis value to place at the top end of the vertical axis of the plot. If a null (!) value is supplied, the largest count in the histogram is used. The value supplied may be greater than or less than the value supplied for YBOT. [!]

Examples:

histogram image 100 ! device=!
Computes and reports the histogram for the data array in the NDF called image. The histogram has 100 bins and spans the full range of data values.
histogram ndf=spectrum comp=variance range="100,200" numbin=20
Computes and reports the histogram for the variance array in the NDF called spectrum. The histogram has 20 bins and spans the values between 100 and 200. A plot is made to the current graphics device.
histogram ndf=spectrum comp=variance range="100,204" width=5
This behaves the same as the previous example, even though it specifies a larger maximum, as the same number of width=5 bins are used.
histogram cube(3,4,) 10 si out=c3_4_hist device=!
Computes and reports the histogram for the z-vector at (x,y) element (3,4) of the data array in the three-dimensional NDF called cube. The histogram has 10 bins and spans a range three standard deviations either side of the mean of the data values. The histogram is written to a one-dimensional NDF called c3_4_hist.
histogram cube numbin=32 ! device=xwindows style="title=cube"
Computes and reports the histogram for the data array in the NDF called cube. The histogram has 32 bins and spans the full range of data values. A plot of the histogram is made to the XWINDOWS device, and is titled "cube".
histogram cube numbin=32 ! device=xwindows ylog style=^style.dat
As in the previous example except the logarithm of the number in each histogram bin is plotted, and the contents of the text file style.dat control the style of the resulting graph. The plotting style specified in file style.dat becomes the default plotting style for future invocations of HISTOGRAM.
histogram cube numbin=32 ! device=xwindows ylog tempstyle=^style.dat
This is the same as the previous example, except that the style specified in file style.dat does not become the default style for future invocations of HISTOGRAM.
histogram halley( 200, 300) "pe,10,90" logfile=hist.dat
Computes the histogram for the central 200 by 300 elements of the data array in the NDF called halley, and writes the results to a logfile called hist.dat. The histogram uses the current number of bins, and includes data values between the 10 and 90 percentiles. A plot appears on the current graphics device.

Related Applications

KAPPA: HISTAT, MSTATS, NUMB, STATS; FIGARO: HIST, ISTAT.

Implementation Status: